Monarchywhere one person rules the country, all the territory of the country is ruled by the king, ruler, president, sultan, etc. is considered property and a government in which sovereignty passes from father to son, usually through kinship is the shape.
In the monarchy, all rulers (leaders called monarchs today) have various titles such as king, queen, emperor, empress, khan, shah, sultan, prince and princess, over which they have this right throughout their lives.
The most distinctive feature that distinguishes monarchy from other forms of government isthe head of state has this important power completely as long as he is alive. (one)
The French word ‘ ‘ translated into TurkishmonarchieIt has passed through. At a certain period of human history, all peoples recognized this system and always gave this form of government a sacred character. In a world where all his actions take a religious and ceremonial form in a constantly religious atmosphere, the king is considered to be chosen only by God himself and the Egyptian pharaohs.
For example, in a period when full democracy was established in Athens Archon (the highest official of the Greek sites, especially in Athens) oversaw the entire religious life of the site. The king, the intermediary between gods and men, found his power limited to those in his favor and necessary to assert his authority. Indeed, in Egypt the king repeatedly clashed with the clergy and had to make concessions. Similarly, in China, the emperor is also the religious symbol of the people and the emperor’s decisions are not questioned in any way.
Seljuk State And Ottoman Empire It was later governed by a monarchy. Unlike European, Egyptian and Central Asian monarchies, there was a council and the ruler’s rule was questionable.
In Egypt, pharaohs were absolute rulers. More absolutist monarchies persisted in regions where agriculture relied on irrigation and required complex organization (such as the Nile Valley and Mesopotamia).
Other places like Athens, Sparta or Rome oligarchy (power in the hands of a small region) quickly replaced the authority of the king. However, after the conquests of Alexandria, a form of monarchy emerged in Greece that was greatly influenced by the divine nature of Eastern monarchies.
Socio-political sociological and economic developments in many developed countries, especially in the 18th and late 19th centuries, constitutional monarchy It gave rise to a new type of monarchy called A monarchy emerged in which the ruler’s power was determined and limited by a written constitution. This monarchy is generally parliamentary and very close to democracy. The king remains the symbol of the state, but cedes executive power to the government. The government is also subject to the decisions of the parliament elected by the people.
Today, management systems in the Netherlands, Denmark, the United Kingdom, Spain, Sweden, Japan and Belgium can be given as examples. Today, the most prominent absolute monarchy is practiced in the North Korean state. (2,3,4)
Types of monarchies
constitutional monarchy: This system is a system of government in which rulers in a country share their powers with bodies or assemblies that have some degree of representation. This form of government can also be expressed as a parliamentary administration that works under the chairmanship of an administrator (ruler, president, emperor, sultan) whose area of power and powers are determined and limited by the constitution. In this type of monarchy, the king is the head of administration and there is a representative council alongside the President. They support the executive of the administration and their words have value.
feudal monarchy: hereditary monarchy type. It is a form of hereditary government. Here, dynasties have important positions and dozens of dynasties arise in each country. They print money in their own names, distribute or buy land to the public. in europe Reform And Renaissance The main reason for their movement is the administrative bodies of the feudal monarchy. People are like the property of the administration in a feudal monarchy. This is why the feudal monarchy led to rebellions in later years. Japan, China and Russia were ruled by feudal monarchies for hundreds of years. During the feudal monarchy in France, the people could not stand it and often rebelled.
absolute monarchy: It is a government system in which legislative and executive power is concentrated in the monarchy (monarch, sultan, president). In this system, the sole and greatest authority of the state is the monarchy. The owner of legislative, executive and even judicial power is the sovereign, that is, the president, the ruler, the sultan. Today, Saudi Arabia and the Vatican are still governed by absolute monarchy. The founder of absolute monarchy is Hammurabiis. (5,6)
States governed by monarchies today:
- Antigua and Barbuda
- New Zeland
- Papua New Guinea
- Great Britain
- Saint Kitts and Nevis
- Saint Lucia
- Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
- Solomon Islands
- United Arab Emirates
Countries governed by absolute monarchies today:
- Saudi Arabia
- North Korea