What is it?



JavaScript (short name: JS) is a scripting language that allows web pages to run in all web browsers and execute complex commands. It is a programming language used to create and manage dynamic content on web pages.

JavaScript enables functions such as slide show, animation, text autocompletion, and interactive form on the web page. This programming language allows web pages to be transformed from a static structure into a functional and user-interactive structure. JavaScript is one of the core technologies of the internet.

HTML And CSS Like JavaScript, it is also widely used. In addition, JavaScript can edit (update/change) HTML and CSS, which allows implementing dynamic functions that cannot be done with HTML and CSS on web pages. Web pages mainly use client side page actions. Because web pages use client-side scripts, most web browsers include a JavaScript engine (For example, Google Chrome V8 JavaScript engine “2008”).

JavaScript, the Internet’s most common scripting language, is used by 97% of web pages. The scripts of the scripting language are embedded in the HTML document. Scripts Document Object Model (DOM) provides interaction with. JavaScript engines Android And iOS It is also built into web browsers (mobile).

Regarding non-browser use of JavaScript netscape And Microsoft Small trials were conducted by (NetScape Enterprise Server/Microsoft Internet Information Service). Effective use of this language outside of the browser can only be Node js It was made possible by the development of open source software. Node.js for the creation of a complete server and functional JavaScript programming space Google V8 engine and developed using low-level I/O API. With the developed software, server side development was achieved with JavaScript, making data sharing between the user computer and server codes practical.

Difference between JavaScript and Java

JavaScript NetScape, java whereas oracleThey are languages ​​developed independently of each other. JavaScript was developed inspired by Java’s syntax and standards library. The name of the scripting language was used in accordance with company policy. There are significant similarities between languages ​​in terms of syntax and language names. However, the two languages ​​are separate from each other and there are serious structural differences.

Applets and standalone applications can be created with Java. There is no such feature in JavaScript. JavaScript is an OOP (Object Oriented Programming) scripting language. Java is an OOP programming language.

JavaScript history

Featuring the first graphical user interface in 1993 mosiac was launched. In 1994, Netscape company was founded by important names of the team that developed the Mosiac web browser.Netscape NavigatorA new web browser named ” was presented to the user. Both browsers only allowed web pages to be static and did not have dynamic action capabilities.

In 1995, Netscape introduced the Navigator browser Sun Microsystems He started a project to bring dynamic page functionality to the browser, working in collaboration with . The company incorporated in the same period as this project. Brendan EichBy including , you can call the browser “schemeHe was carrying out a separate project on adding the ” language. At this point in the projects, the company management decided to design a new language that was mainly similar to the Java programming language.

The new programming language, created by Brendan Eich at the request of Netscape, was used under the name “LiveScript” in the Navigator Beta version in September 1995. However, in the official Navigator version released in December 1995, the name JavaScript was used for the programming language. This approach of Netscape was evaluated as taking advantage of the popularity of the Java programming language, which was emerging at that time. Some of the syntax and operator names in JavaScript were later developed by Brendan Eich. HyperTalkHe explained that he was influenced by .

in 2009 oracle With the agreement made between Sun Microsystems and Oracle, Oracle acquired all shares of Sun. With the sale of Sun, JavaScript passed to Oracle Corporation.

JavaScript relationship with Microsoft

First web browser in 1995 Internet ExplorerMicrosoft, which introduced , became the strongest competitor against Netscape. Following Netscape’s JavaScript move, Microsoft “reverse engineered” the Navigator’s interpreter and developed JScript.

JScript was used in the 1996 version of Internet Explorer. In the same release, Microsoft also released the first CSS support and HTML extensions.

Difference between JScript and JavaScript

JScriptdeveloped by Microsoft as a result of reverse engineering of JavaScript and used in Internet Explorer. ECMAScript is the standard scripting language dialect. JScript was first introduced in 1996 with the Internet Explorer 3.0 web browser.

The fact that web pages had to use one of two programming languages ​​caused problems at that time. The ECMAScript standard was created to solve the problem. Thus, all web pages can be run in all web browsers, regardless of which one they use. Microsoft JScript has departed from the standard with version 10.0. this version .NET It is considered a separate dialect.

ECMAScript standardization

Microsoft’s use of its own interpreter and the use of the JavaScript interpreter in Navigator made it impossible to open web pages in both browsers. The first step against this situation, which caused serious problems for the end user, came from Netscape. In 1997, the ECMA International standards organization meeting was held. At the meeting, standardization was achieved with ECMAScript and incompatibilities between web browsers were regulated.

ECMAScript is a scripting language that provides standardization. It is compatible with the ECMA-262 document, different versions of which have been published since 1997. It is considered the “JavaScript” standard, which ensures the operability of web pages in all web browsers by creating standardization in the programming language.

ECMAScript file extension It is in the form “.es”.

How does JavaScript work?

JavaScript provides automation control of web pages. The created script specifies which “dynamic” action the web page will perform. The JavaScript rendering function (engine) in web browsers reads JavaScript codes embedded in the HTML document. JS codes can be used in web browsers without the need for extra software.

To add JavaScript to the web page, it must be written with the “script” tag and the “text/javascript” type attribute must be given. For example;

function factorial(n) {  if (n === 0)    return 1; // 0! = 1  return n * factorial(n - 1);}factorial(3); // returns 6

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