InternetIt is the common name given to many data communication protocols that provide organization between computers and data transmission/reception units and thus enable data transmission from one place to another.
Internet, TCP/ROPE It is an ever-growing communication network that connects many computer systems in the world using the (Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol) protocol.
Turkish meaning of internetis the public network. Its exact meaning in English is defined as a collection of interconnected networks. Therefore, it is derived from the English word “Interconnected Network”. TDK He accepted the public network as the equivalent of the word Internet.
in 1969 ARPANET The project, called (Advanced Research Projects Authority Net), was first established in the United States for military purposes to coordinate communications through computers connected to the Internet and to protect the country. The project was created with the aim of not interrupting the information flow even when communicating with any computer, which is the basis of today’s internet. After ARPANET, it was established in 1986 to enable universities to share for scientific purposes. NSFNET (National Science Foundation) and compuserve New networks for commercial use were introduced.
The first message written on the Internetforwarded by the US Department of Defense to a prominent professor at the University of California.
After this project was used in American universities in the early 1970s, e-mail (SMTP) And NNTP applications began to gain popularity. This FTP (File Transfer Protocol) and HTTP (Secure Hypertext Transfer Communication Protocol) followed.
On April 30, 1993, CERN opened the Internet WWW (World Wide Web) prefix. Internet technology Turkish Universities and Research Institutes Network (established in 1987 under the leadership of Ege University).TÜVAKA) came to Turkey. On April 12, 1993, with a subscriber line between METU and Ankara-Washington. Turkey’s first internet connection was established.
Thanks to the internet, information can be easily shared and transmitted, regardless of location. The Internet allows all devices with the TCP/IP system to connect to each other.
The Internet works on the same principle as telephone lines, they are connected to each other in some way. In many parts of the world, this system continues to operate on existing phone lines. The internet has spread rapidly all over the world through fiber optic cables laid on the highways between countries and under the seas and oceans. Thanks to these lines, countries can connect and communicate with each other via the Internet. Thanks to this technology, information can be easily accessed anytime and anywhere.
How does the internet work?
Thanks to the development of technology, Internet connection is provided via wireless network. Connecting to Wi-Fi or wireless Internet, router It works with a router called . A connection to a network is established with the router.
To connect to the Internet with a smartphone or tablet, a base station connected to a wired network is required. Internet is provided through buried fiber optic cables or traditional cables connected to utility poles.
This system server called servers and client It has a structure consisting of clients called clients. The server serves other machines and operates with a direct connection to the Internet. There are different types of servers such as Electronic Mail servers, data servers and web servers. All servers have Fixed Internet Protocol, i.e. static IP address. Connections are established between computers through IP addresses.
Computers are connected to the Internet through the Internet Service Provider through a non-direct protocol. Therefore, Wireless Internet Connection is used. Home computers are called Clients. With the Internet service provided by the service provider, the computer connects to the IP address of the server.
- site: A website is a group of digital pages where text, images, and other files are shared over the Internet. These are environments where the Internet is used visually through screens and sound is used through speakers. A website can consist of many pages. The first page of a web page that a user encounters is called “home page” is given. It can be accessed from the home page via links to other parts of the site or external pages.
- Modem: It is an electronic device that converts phone signals into digital data and allows computers to connect to the Internet.
- TCP/ROPE: It is the file communication protocol that makes the Internet the communication environment of our age.
- Email (English: Email): This is an abbreviation for “Electronic Mail”. They are digital letters sent and received over the internet.
What is an internet browser?
Resources that enable users to access information, internet browser It is called. If in English web browser It is defined as . The Internet browser runs within a program. Web pages are opened through the browser and users are allowed to browse the page they want. Browsers also act not only as access channels to websites but also provide access to information located on private networks.
Computers, tablets or smart phones The most preferred and most frequently accessed internet browsers can be listed as follows:
- Google Chrome
- Mozilla Firefox
- Microsoft Internet Explorer / Microsoft Edge
- Apple Safari
Domain Name System (DNS) is the name given to the computer or computer system connected to the Internet through a hierarchical naming system known as Internet addresses.
DNS makes it possible to locally group all Internet-connected entities, called servers, in a tree structure. Each internet address corresponds to a four-digit number.
These numbers in the abcd format are called Internet Protocol (IP) numbers.
The first part of each Internet address is divided into two parts to form the domain name (domain) gives the network address and the last part gives the machine number (server). There are also machine names corresponding to the IP address. In this way, the names of the machines are easier to remember. Some popular domain extensions are listed below:
- .com: Commercial organizations
- .edu: Educational organizations
- .gov: Government organizations
- .org: Non-profit and non-commercial organizations
- .mil: Military organizations (military)
- .net: Network organizations
- .ac: Academic institutions (used as edu in some countries)
Example domain addresses: irmde.net, hokudai.ac.jp (jp=Japan), boun.edu.tr, (tr=Turkey), oak.oakland.edu, service.net.tr, microsoft.com, tubitak.gov .tr, garbo.uwasa.fi (fi=Finland), rl.ac.uk (uk =England)
- FTP (File Transfer Protocol): It is an internet protocol developed for file transfer (in both directions) from a computer connected to the Internet to another computer and is the common name given to the application programs that do this job.
- E-mail: One of the reasons for the emergence of computer networks was people’s desire to send mail and electronic communications from one place to another. Electronic mail (E-mail) is the collective name of the services used for this purpose.
- usenet: It is a discussion platform where news and articles on various topics are published by millions of network users around the world. User-submitted mail is delivered to users via an Internet protocol known as NNTP. Messages sent by a single sender are distributed hierarchically and can be read by anyone with Internet access worldwide through a Usenet service provider.
- Lists: It is one of the group communication mechanisms in which people participate voluntarily. Programs that implement these mechanisms are often called listproc or list management software. Unlike Usenet newsgroups, lists require membership. A message sent by one member is distributed to all members of the list, thus ensuring a message flow.
- Chat: It is a platform where multiple people can communicate with interactive messages at the same time. People who want to talk or discuss a particular topic usually concentrate on areas called channels that have a topic.
- WWW: Web or W3 (World Wide Web) is a multimedia hypermedia system that provides interactive access to data in various structures such as text, images, sound and movies.