dialect; These are branches that are separated for historical, geographical, political and other reasons due to their sound, solid structure and syntactic features.
In other words, dialect is the state of change in the sounds, syntax and vocabulary used in life by regions far from each other for various social reasons. (one)
History and formation process
The dialect history for Turkish probably began with Mahmud of Kashgar. many others dialect type It also enriches Turkish. In addition, due to historical and sociological developments, the language used by the Chuvash Turks Chuvash dialect and used by Yakut Turks Yakut dialect was used as a language. Divanu Lugat’it Türkwhich explains Turkish dialects best and gives information about them Mahmud of KashgarIt is a unique work of .
This work, which best describes the dialect and Turkish in the world, is the annotated version of 7,500 words. European, Chinese and Egyptian sources created their own sources by referring to this work. (2,3,4)
Features of the dialect
- A language can have many different dialects,
- Dialects have different Polish rules and belong to one language.
- The size of the region changes completely with the number of people who speak the dialect.
- It is normal for it to be separate from the language it belongs to.
Dialects supported by states
standard polishis an institutionally supported dialect. The existence of printed grammar books, dictionaries, school books with correct spelling and pronunciation, presented as the correct form of a language, in schools recognized or selected by the state, and the existence of widespread literature using this dialect are cited as examples of the support that the standard dialect receives.
For example, standard (government and publicly supported) American English, British English, Indian Englishcan be considered one of the standard dialects of the English language.
Although a nonstandard dialect has a complete vocabulary, grammatical structure, and pattern of words used in public, it lacks institutional support. (5)
Language distinction between Polish and
Although there are no specific, universally accepted rules that can distinguish languages from dialects, some ideas and projects used in this direction have emerged over time. Many different languages are generally classified as dialects rather than languages for a number of reasons:
- These are not literary languages or are not accepted as such.
- Users of the language do not have their own state.
- The language has no prestige.
Dialects are the hidden treasure of language. No matter how far back human history goes, dialects reach all languages. (6)
Hundreds of dialects were formed in different parts of the world, as they shared the characteristics of the language but diverged for many different reasons. It is known that cultural and geographical factors play an extremely important role here. Some linguists even created completely different languages over time by expressing their thoughts on dialects in a single language. Due to the different dialects spoken in many different countries of the world, even people speaking the same language may have difficulty understanding each other.
For example, the differences between different dialects of Latin increased over time to such an extent that different languages such as French, Italian, Spanish, Portuguese and Romanian emerged.
When we looked at the Turkish language, it was determined that there were many dialects. Among these, especially Yakut Turks, Türkiye Turks And Azerbaijani Turks took the lead.
Turkish, which lives in an extremely wide geography stretching from the Adriatic Sea to China, is divided into many different dialects:
- Anatolian Turkish: Oghuz Turkish It is part of the language group. This language is spoken by Anatolian Turks living in Anatolia, Thrace and Northern Cyprus (Turkish population in Cyprus is approximately 350,000), with a total population of more than 80 million. It is the largest of the Turkish dialects.
- Azeri Turkish: Azeri Turkish, known for its closeness to Anatolian Turkish, is also included in the Oghuz language group.
- Uzbek Turkish: It is the language spoken by Uzbek Turks in the Karluk group. The majority of speakers of this language live in the Republic of Uzbekistan.
- Kazakh Turkish: It is in the Kipchak group of Turkic languages. This language is generally spoken by those living in the Republic of Kazakhstan.
- Turkmen Turkish: It is a language spoken in the Republic of Turkmenistan and some regions (Iran, Iraq, Afghanistan). This language is also in the Oghuz group and has characteristics very close to Anatolian Turkish.
- Other dialects: Tatarstan, Bashkir, Karakalpak, Chuvash, Sors, Altay, Uyghur, Gagauz (Gökoğuz), Kumuk, Karachay, Karaim, Hakas, Nogay, Tuva, Yakut (Saka), Kaskay, Ahıska (Mesketi Meşet) Turkish.