Atheism, It is a philosophical system of thought that has existed since ancient times, has nothing to do with religions and does not accept the existence of God. Derived from the Greek word theos (god) and theism This word, translated into English as atheism, was given the name atheism by adding the prefix (a), which is a prefix and gives the meaning of negativity. However, this belief cannot be fully explained with this concept, which is expressed as atheist when translated into Turkish.
This system of thought is a system in which different views are adopted regarding the existence or non-existence of God. Pantheism, Deism, agnosticism and it is clearly distinguished from Theism. In the atheist system of thought, there is no discussion of the types of religion and the existence of religions, and philosophy is entirely related to the concept of god. At the same time, spiritual entities and metaphysical beliefs originating from religion are not included in the philosophy of atheism.
History of atheism and its first representatives
History of atheism When examined, it is seen that this idea coincides with the first emergence of the concepts of god and religion. The first known atheist in history was B.C. Diagoras, who lived in the 5th century and questioned beliefs intensely. At the same time Buddhism And Hinduism It is among the schools close to atheism because materialism is highlighted in its belief.
Another one of history first known atheist thinker He is Socrates, who lived in the ancient Greek period. In the Greek society, which was known to attach great importance to the gods, Socrates was executed because it was thought that he inspired the gods.
Democritus, one of the pioneers of philosophical movements, is another representative of this idea, believing in the existence of only matter, unlike spirits. Epicurus, one of the first atheists, who each explained it in different ways, but whose only common point was that God does not exist, defended matter, just like Democritus, but defended the idea that even if God existed, he could not intervene in nature and people.
With the advent of Christianity, atheists who did not accept the existence of God were punished very severely, and their number decreased, especially during the Roman Empire. However, this situation began to change with the Renaissance, and atheist thought began to revive and proliferate in the 17th and 18th centuries.
The most important and well-known atheist representative of the period; The author of the book Common Sense, which has also been translated into Turkish, is French priest Jean Mislier. In the next period, the 19th and 20th centuries, especially German thinkers and philosophers emerged as representatives of atheism.
Arthur Schopenhauer, Ludwig Feuerbach, Karl Marx, Jean Paul Sartre, Friedrich Nietzsche and Friedrich Engel. Atheism, which was first brought to a political line by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engel, was adopted by Enver Hodja, the leader of Albania in this period, and it was declared that the country was an atheist country. As a result of this development, the first atheist state order in history was established and officially declared.
What are the characteristics of atheism?
There are many different types of atheism, and what all these types have in common is that they deny the existence of God. The most distinctive feature of this system of thought is that it does not deal with religions, metaphysics and mystical issues, and the only subject it is interested in is the existence of God.
In atheist thought, the characteristics of religions are examined, rather than whether religions are good or bad, and that there is not only one creator. And another distinguishing point from different beliefs is that only matter exists and the subject of discussion consists of material (materialist) contents.
What are the types of atheism and who are their representatives?
The idea of atheism has manifested itself in many genres as a result of developments and changes throughout history and has continued with minor differences. The idea, which is generally divided into two different branches: practical and theoretical, is explained with two separate definitions.
Practical atheism; It means that a person lives his life as if God does not exist and does not value religious beliefs and mystical thoughts. According to this view, since God does not exist in the first place, there is no need to enter into discussions about this concept. Its most important representatives are the famous German thinkers Friedrich Nietzsche and Ludwig Feuerbach.
Theoretical atheismIn addition to ignoring the existence of God, it is the name given to the idea that various research and theses are put forward to refute the existence of God. Although practical atheism does not value it; Religions, religious beliefs and theories such as life after death and belief in the afterlife have also been included in the system to be refuted. In this type of atheism, ideas such as deism and pantheism, which accept the existence of God, are not included.